Tanzania, United Republic of (Downgrade)

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Protected Area Name (Primary)

Name of protected area at the time PADDD was enacted or proposed.

Protected Area Name (Others)

All other names associated with the protected area.


Downgrading — a decrease in legal restrictions on the number, magnitude, or extent of human activities within a PA.
Downsizing — a decrease in the size of a PA as a result of excision of land or sea area through a legal boundary change.
Degazettement — a functional loss of legal protection for an entire PA.


The legal standing of an order to downgrade, downsize, or degazette.
Enacted: PADDD has passed into law.
Proposed: PADDD has been considered by relevant authorities, but has not passed into law.

Year Gazetted

The year in which the PA was legally established.
If only decade is known, use the midpoint (i.e. 1990s -> 1995)

Year PADDDed

For enacted PADDD: The year in which PADDD was legally authorized.
For proposed PADDD: The year in which PADDD was first proposed.
If only decade is known, use the midpoint (ie 1990s -> 1995)

Shifting Sovereignty

The proximate cause of PADDD. More…
Conservation Planning — part of a process to enhance the conservation efficiency/efficacy of a group of PAs More…
Degradation — degradation of ecological, biophysical, touristic, symbolic, or other functions such that PA no longer fulfills intended purpose. More…
Fisheries — wild-capture fishing operations. More…
Forestry — forestry or logging operations. More…
Industrial Agriculture — industrial scale (mechanized) agriculture operations (includes aquaculture). More…
Industrialization — industrial scale production or delivery of goods. More…
Infrastructure — structures and activities that form the system of public works. More…
Land Claims — restoration of full or partial rights to indigenous or other peoples. More…
Mining — mining operations (including all minerals and coal). More…
Oil and Gas — exploration or extraction of fossil fuels (excludes coal; see mining). More…
Refugee Accommodation — settlement or accommodation of refugees or IDPs. More…
Rural Settlements — legal authorization of previously prohibited rural habitation. More…
Shifting Sovereignty — change in sovereignty of a parcel of land among nation-states, states/provinces, or local political jurisdictions. More…
Subsistence — small scale artisanal (non-industrial) extraction and production activities.More…
Other — Any cause not provided above.More…

Area PADDDed

For enacted PADDD: area no longer protected due to downsizing or degazettement; area of reduced protection due to downgrading.
For proposed PADDD: proposed area no longer protected due to downsizing or degazettement; proposed area of reduced protection due to downgrading.
Please ensure your data is in km2.

Size Pre-PADDD

For enacted PADDD: size of PA before PADDD occurred.
For proposed PADDD: size of PA when PADDD was proposed.
Please ensure your data is in km2.

Size Post-PADDD

For enacted PADDD: size of PA after PADDD has occurred.
For proposed PADDD: size of PA if PADDD proposal was to be enacted.
Please ensure your data is in km2.

IUCN Category Pre-PADDD
Ia Strict Nature Reserve

For enacted PADDD: IUCN category of protected area before PADDD occurred.
For proposed PADDD: IUCN category of protected area when PADDD was proposed.

IUCN Category Post-PADDD
III Natural Monument or Feature

For enacted PADDD: IUCN category of protected area after PADDD occurred.
For proposed PADDD: IUCN category of protected area if proposal was enacted.

PADDD Reversed?

For enacted PADDD: was the legal change later reversed?
For proposed PADD: was the proposal later withdrawn?

Year Reversed

Year PADDD was reversed or withdrawn.

PADDD Offset?

For enacted PADDD: was a different parcel of land protected to explicitly offset PADDD?
For proposed PADDD: are there plans to protect a different parcel of land to explicitly offset PADDD?

Systemic Change?

For enacted PADDD: was this instance of PADDD a part of a change that affected multiple PAs at the same time?
For proposed PADDD: is this part of a proposal involving multiple PAs at the same time?

Supporting Details
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The various procedures vary from conservative non-invasive treatments to surgery. The type of treatment used will depend on the level of pain as well as the cause. Most doctors treat back pain with the simple non-medical treatments first, before turning to medication and other procedures. The patient's specific condition will determine the method that will be the most suitable, but doctors will usually begin with all the treatment plans which can be not invasive. Professor Fonarow states numerous studies had demonstrated that many of these medications are related to an increased probability of cardiovascular events, particularly when used for a prolonged duration of time and better doses. It is still unclear for the extent of the risk and just how the cardiovascular risk can deviate between different NSAIDs. Dr. Fonarow did not take part in the study. Other patients have to have a laminectomy, which involves removal of the entire lamina. Most doctors usually do not recommend surgery to take care of back pain due to risks involved. If, however, it is vital, they have to ensure that the person is in a wholesome enough condition to extract fully. Surgery is often reserved for people who are healthy and relatively younger, since they are more likely to have complete recovery. Other patients require a laminectomy, which involves removal of the complete lamina. Most doctors tend not to recommend surgery to help remedy back pain due to risks involved. If, however, it is necessary, they should ensure that the person is in a normal enough condition to extract fully. Surgery is often reserved for people who are healthy and relatively younger, since they are more likely to have complete recovery. One of the first treatment plans utilized on those suffering from back pain is exercise. It is usually used if the patient has mild to moderate low back pain. The exercises used are mostly non-weight exercises that are recommended by physiotherapists. It is important to not put a lot of pressure about the back during the exercises. Water exercises or swimming usually are especially beneficial. Chiropractic restores functioning, aides in injury prevention and immensely decrease pain levels. Chiropractic is proven valuable also within the areas of carpal tunnel symptoms, headaches, migraines, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia among numerous conditions.

Detailed notes about the PADDD event. Wherever possible, use block quotes from sources.

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All sources used in the "Supporting Details". Please provide date accessed for all URLs.

PADDD in: This Protected Area  |  This Country
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Tanzania, United Republic of (Downgrade) updated 1 year 1 month ago